Monday, June 8, 2020

Redefining Sentimentalism in 19th-Century American Literature - Literature Essay Samples

During the 20th century, the work of nineteenth-century female American writers was often described as â€Å"sentimental,† â€Å"domestic,† â€Å"feminine† and â€Å"frivolous,† and considered lacking depth and seriousness. However, more recent critics such as Judith Fetterley and Nina Baym have reevaluated this literature from a new prospective, using these same terms as praise and empowerment. In Provisions, Judith Fetterley’s main idea is that these women were self-conscious, but they were also very self-aware. Beneath the seemingly straightforward writing, there was a great deal of important political and social commentary. Similarly, Nina Baym acknowledges the hidden power of women’s literature and the positive association with the term sentimentalism. Instead of associating that term with excessive emotions and lack of discipline, Baym wants us to associate it with having sympathy and kindness towards others. In Woman’s Fiction, Baym says that these women writers were in touch with their â€Å"inner life† and expressed this inner life in their works. Both contemporary theorists agree that women writers were not discrediting the domestic realm of motherhood and wifehood, but simply acknowledging that women were able to find fulfillment in other roles as well. In Ruth Hall, Fanny Fern depicts Ruth as a mother and wife whose widowhood and lack of income force her to work outside the home. In â€Å"A Wife’s Story,† Rebecca Harding Davis portrays Hester as a newly married wife who does not need to seek outside work, but who has a strong desire to pursue her dreams outside of the home. In â€Å"A Poetess,† Mary Wilkins Freeman depicts Betsey Dole, a skilled poetess who enjoys writing verse for her own pleasure. Finally, in The Country of the Pointed Firs, Sarah Orne Jewett illustrates female independence in the character of Mrs. Todd who is financially self-sufficient through her own h ome business. All of these works support Fetterley and Baym’s observations about how female empowerment is often represented in these sentimental narratives. Fanny Fern’s Ruth Hall confronts many of the traditional hardships faced by nineteenth-century heroines of sentimental literature: widowhood, poverty, rejection by society, and pressures to adhere to women’s roles. Fern’s novel alters the traditional concept of motherhood by portraying it as an incentive to work. Ruth faces judgment from her family and friends after her husband dies and she has no means of supporting herself or her daughters. When Ruth tries to find employment so that she wont be a burden on others, she is still judged because she is acting outside of expected gender roles. Ruth works at several small jobs that do not provide enough money for her to support herself and her girls. However, she eventually is hired as a newspaper columnist and enjoys great success and popularity for her pieces. This is significant because the usual type of work that women found outside the home involved manual labor such as being a seamstress or governess. This kind of work was often unstimulating and extremely tedious. However, in Ruth’s case she becomes self-sufficient and she does so by using her own wit and intelligence. In no way does Ruth abandon her role as a mother. Evidence of this is seen when her daughter Katy is sent to live with Ruth’s in-laws because Ruth cannot financially support both daughters. Her entire reason for working is to provide for her daughters and give them the best life she can. It is significant to recognize that although circumstances drive Ruth out of the home and into the workplace, her situation is unique because she enjoys the challenge of her work and finds it very fulfilling. Fetterley describes the popular beliefs of the time that the best women’s writing should be characterized by piety, a subdued tone, and lack of conflict. However, Ruth Hall defies all of these expectations. Baym observes that what makes Ruth Hall unconventional is that at the end of the novel, the heroine is very satisfied with her independence and has no desire to remarry or to form a romantic relationship. This is very different from what we usually see in sentimental literature where the woman needs a man that she can lean on. Ruth does not turn away from motherhood but she makes motherhood part of who she is, instead of all of who she is. Baym asserts that living in a man’s world, Ruth realizes that she can only succeed if she plays the man’s game and Ruth finds that she likes it very much. With her new success, there is no turning back to the life she had before. Rebecca Harding Davis’s â€Å"A Wife’s Story,† is another work about a woman who recognizes the importance of her role as a wife and mother only after she seeks fulfillment outside of the domestic realm. Although she has a comfortable married life, Hester yearns for her younger years before the duties of motherhood tethered her to the home. In those earlier times she was able to travel and participate in conversations that stimulated her intellectually. Hester believes she has more purpose in her life than just being a conventional wife and mother who dutifully conforms with society’s expectations. She believes she is a gifted singer and she enjoys composing musical scores. As the critic Baym discusses, we see Hester’s thought process and â€Å"inner-life† here. At one point she accepts an opportunity to compose music and audition for an opera. However, she is not successful and both Hester and her opera are ridiculed. She returns home only t o find her husband is near death and her guilt overwhelms her. The twist of the story is that her opera experience and her husband’s serious illness appear to be hallucinations brought on by a brain fever. When she realizes that this has all been a dream, she has an epiphany and feels she has been reborn. Hester believes she has a second chance to make a decision about her future. The decision she makes is that she is going to embrace her roles as mother and wife, rejecting her previous dream of pursuing a musical career. This may seen like a step backwards, but it is actually an empowering moment for Hester because she makes a conscious decision to return to the domestic sphere and no one has forced her to do this. Fetterley’s concept of â€Å"self-awareness† is seen when Hester wakes up from her illness and makes a decision that will benefit her family and please society, but not herself. It is interesting that her illness comes upon her when she is dreaming o f living an independent life. It is as if her guilt for thinking of leaving her family causes her to become ill. Therefore, when she makes the decision to come back it is her conscience that drives her to do this more than anything else. The ending of A Wifes Story highlights the plight of 19th-century women who really had very little choice but to be wives and mothers. In her article, Emily Dolan states that Davis uses a narrative technique that Dolan calls â€Å"troubled conclusions† in which the reader is left unsure about the outcome of the story. Dolan contends that there is a lack of resolution at the end of the story which forces the reader to continue thinking about the complex issues facing women of the time. In Dolan’s view, the reader is left questioning whether Davis supports or objects to conventional domesticity. Dolan discusses the fact that Davis provides a conclusion to the story but does not provide closure. Dolan notes that Davis’s ending to the story is not a surrender, but just a way to emphasize the disappointing reality of the limitations of options available to women at that time. Furthermore, Dolan posits that Davis was a reformer who intended for her readers to question the conventions that limited women’s options and that her writing is considered by some authors to be the first to really challenge the traditional marriage plot. The narrative in â€Å"A Wife’s Story† reflects Fetterley’s contention that women writers focused their attention on what they knew best which was domesticity (home life and family). Fetterly points out that much of the writing by 19th-century women writers was very emotional and appealing, but that is because they could not speak openly about the injustices they suffered. Instead, Fetterley contends they spoke about these issues indirectly. Again, we see this in Davis’s story as Hester’s dream is pushed aside and she returns to her expected role within the family. In her short story â€Å"A Poetess,† Mary Wilkins Freeman presents another example of sentimental and regional women’s literature of the period. Like many of her short stories, â€Å"A Poetess† addresses the reality of the threadbare lives of women in small-time New England. The protagonist Betsey Dole is a gifted poetess whose true compassion for others is reflected in her poetry. Rather than just quickly creating lines of verse, Betsey becomes absorbed in her feelings and thoughts as she writes, connecting emotionally with the person or situation she is describing. Although some other critics would have described Betsey’s writing as sentimental and imply that this was a negative attribute, Baym praises it as showing true depth of feeling and compassion for others. In Baym’s view, sentimentalism is a strength in women’s writing. Through the clergyman Mr. Lang, who also writes poetry, Freeman reflects the nineteenth-century societal view of w omen writers. Mr. Lang belittles Betsey’s writing abilities and effectively destroys her confidence. In this same way, nineteenth-century women writers were disparaged by their contemporary critics. In Betsey’s case, her grief is so intense that she dies at the story’s end, and this could be symbolic of the death of women’s belief in themselves as authors. In her article, Linda Grasso contends that Betsey still adheres to the traditional role as a woman as a nurturer because her poetry is written to sooth and comfort others. However, Grasso posits that this is a unique outlet for Betsey to care for others as opposed to the more accepted modes such as child care, cleaning, cooking, and working for the church. As in real life, where male writers dominate the literary world, Betsey’s village is dominated by the clergyman who feels threatened by her as a rival poet. As critic Grasso describes it, Betsey is living a meager life and writing gives her a sense of value and a way to connect with others. Critic Jane Tompkins adds to this idea by pointing out that the male-dominated scholarly world would have ridiculed this kind of writing as sentimental and reflecting â€Å"womanly inferiority.† Betsey embodies Baym’s concept of the â€Å"inner life† because of her natural ability to sympathize and deeply connect with the emotional struggles of others. This gives her poetry authenticity and empowers her as a genuinely compassionate person. Freeman contrasts Betsey’s natural and real sentimental poetry with Mr. Lang’s forced and unfeeling verse. Lastly, in Sarah Orne Jewett’s The Country of the Pointed Firs, Mrs. Todd is a woman who lives alone and supports herself with her own small home business. Although she does not have children she can be seen as a kind of â€Å"mother figure† since the villagers come to her for comfort and the potions and remedies she makes to ease their suffering. In addition, like a mother, she tells stories and is always ready to listen to other people’s troubles. As a nurturer, Mrs. Todd represents a traditional female role. Interestingly, critic Karen Oakes discusses one of Mrs. Todd’s potions made from pennyroyal that was used for centuries to end a pregnancy. This is significant because Mrs. Todd makes no moral judgment of the women who seek this potion. Instead, she is providing a means for women to be in control of their own reproductive choices and destiny, and this is extremely empowering. This is an example of the strong bond between women in the village who lea n on each other and do not depend on men for support. It is noteworthy that Mrs. Todd and some other women in the village have chosen to live alone but they do not feel lonely. Instead of committed male companionship, such as husbands, they have each other. Melissa Pennell explains in her article that the bonding together of women in this book, allow them to establish their own identity separate from men and allow them to bond to a common female heritage and tradition. Mrs. Todd’s relationship with the female narrator is also significant because it reflects two kinds of female empowerment. The narrator travels to Dunnet Landing alone and is under a deadline to produce a writing piece. We immediately recognize her independence and understand that she is self-sufficient. We can compare her to Mrs. Todd who represents independence within a more domestic realm. Jewett seems to be celebrating women’s independence whether it is shown outside or inside the home. The narrator grows more fond of and interested in Mrs. Todd’s life and the lives of other single women in the village. The narrator eventually wants to write about them. This is another way that Jewett presents her idea that all of women’s labor is honorable. Although many critics did not treat women’s literature with the respect it deserved, modern critics such as Judith Fetterley and Nina Baym have taken the previous negative term of sentimentalism and shown how that trait is a positive and empowering force in women’s writing. In Fanny Fern’s Ruth Hall, Rebecca Harding Davis’s â€Å"A Wife’s Story,† Mary Wilkins Freeman’s â€Å"A Poetess,† and Sarah Orne Jewett’s The Country of the Pointed Firs, we see women who are bound by traditional roles and expectations, but who seek fulfillment outside of the home. Although each character seeks a different path, each has an inner life and a degree of self-awareness that Fetterley and Baym describe. Modern critics have redefined sentimentalism in a positive way to reflect how women writers celebrated women’s rich potential as productive workers and artists.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Self Image Self Esteem, Consumer Behavior, Personality Advertisement - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1589 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/09/12 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? www. imis. ac. in Study Note @ Consumer Behavior Do advertisements influence our self image and our self esteem? Some critics accuse marketers of systematically creating anxiety, promoting envy, and fostering feelings of inadequacy and insecurity to sell us their products. Marketers respond that advertising does nothing more than mirror societys values, alerts people to new products and bargains, or motivate people to switch brands. At the very worst, they say, it bores or annoys. Of course, some ads provide information useful to consumers. And advertising clearly plays a valid role in an economy based on a system of free enterprise. The question is not whether advertising is valid; clearly, it is. The concern discussed here is the relationship between the images presented in ads and our sense of self. Can ads influence what we perceive as valid roles for ourselves in our society? And can our self-image and self-esteem be influenced by advertising? What are the images that ads present? Everywhere we turn, advertisements tell us what it means to be a desirable man or woman. Ads paint limited images of what men and women can be. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Self Image Self Esteem, Consumer Behavior, Personality Advertisement" essay for you Create order Because ads are everywhere in our society, these limited images sink into our conscious and unconscious minds. In this way, ads help limit our understanding of our worth and our full potential. Ads tend to present women in limited roles. Girls and women in ads show concern about their bodies, their clothes, their homes, and the need to attract a boy or man. Seldom are women shown in work settings, business roles, or positions of responsibility and authority. Our society recognizes many valid roles for women, but this isnt always reflected in ads. Also, the girls and women in ads are presented as beautiful. But ads offer a very limited, narrow image of beauty. The advertising industry favors models with facial features that look Anglo, even if the model is Black or Hispanic. Ads also present a very thin body type as though it were the most common or most desirable body type. Researchers have found that girls and women who work as models weigh 23% less than the average female their age. And the hips of an average department store mannequin measure six inches less than that of the average young woman. Girls, women, boys, and men seeing these commercial images may be influenced to think of an ultra-thin female body as more normal or desirable than one of average weight. The extreme preoccupation with weight fostered by advertising images is reflected in the fact that 80% of 10year-old girls report having dieted and that eight million American women suffer from anorexia or bulimia, two potentially life-threatening eating disorders. In reality, many different kinds of facial features and body types are beautiful. Besides, the flawless appearance of women in ads isnt even real. Its an illusion created by makeup artists, photographers. Each image is carefully worked over. Blemishes, wrinkles, and stray hairs are Page 1 Prof. Suvendu Kr. Pratihari www. imis. ac. in airbrushed away. Teeth and eyeballs are bleached white. In some cases, the picture you see is actually made of several photos. The face of one model may be combined with the body of a second model and the legs of a third. So many of the pictures we see are artificial, manufactured images. What happens when a girl or woman compares her real self with this narrow, unreal image of perfection? She may feel unattractive. When her self-image suffers, often her self-esteem is damaged too. She then looks for ways to improve her image and self-esteem. Ads also present an image of the ideal male. Although ads targeting boys and men do not present as narrow an imaginary physical ideal as do ads targeting girls and women, they still present a very limited view of masculinity. For girls and women, body image is emphasized in most ads. For boys and men, the image emphasized is an image of attitude. Boys and young men in ads typically play the part of someone who is cool and confident, independent, even a rebel. Men in ads tend to have an aura of power, physical strength, confidence, dominance, and detachment. The implied message for the viewer is that this is the way to be cool; this is the way a young man should act. The male image shown in ads almost never includes such traits as sensitivity, vulnerability, or compassion. This may discourage boys and men from displaying these natural and desirable human traits. Ads may thus limit a boy or mans sense of what he can or should be. The actors in ads tend to be handsome, with clear complexions and hair that is perfectly combed or perfectly windblown. They are also almost always athletic. Physical or even sexual prowess is suggested in scenes of physically challenging, dangerous, or aggressive sports. The self-image of boys and men who do not exhibit these traits for example, who have normal complexions, are not athletic, and dont feel cool and confident may suffer when they watch these ads. Negative feelings about oneself, whether related to appearance or anything else, can be followed by lower self-esteem. Ads offer to sell a new self-image. Of course, the ads that injure our self-image and self-esteem dont stop there. They conveniently offer to sell a product that will solve our newly imagined problem. Consider this quote from Nancy Shalek, president of an advertising agency: Advertising at its best is making people feel that without their product, youre a loser. Kids are very sensitive to that. If you tell them to buy something, they are resistant. But if you tell them theyll be a dork if they dont, youve got their attention. You open up emotional vulnerabilities and its very easy to do with kids because theyre the most emotionally vulnerable. Another person involved in marketing, Charles Kettering, said that selling new products is about the organized creation of dissatisfaction. Many commonly accepted ideas about appearance for example, that skin should be blemish free and teeth bright white are not absolute truths. These expectations were artificially created Page 2 Prof. Suvendu Kr. Pratihari www. imis. ac. in over a period of years by those who wanted to sell certain kinds of products and promoted the idea that we needed those products if our physical appearance was to be acceptable. Lets take a closer look at this emphasis on appearance. Ads tend to convey the idea that appearance is all-important. They teach us to be self-conscious about how we look. When we grow up surrounded by ads, intense self-scrutiny may seem normal. Of course, all cultures have their own ideas about the traits that make a boy or man and a girl or woman attractive. Often these ideas are very, very different than our own. Rather, it is the level of concern with physical appearance that makes modern Americans unique. The intense concern with appearance that is so common in our culture has not been the norm in most cultures. It is an artificial concern that we have acquired from living immersed in a society dominated by commercialism. In summary, there are 4 types of self Image: 1. Actual Self Image or real self image-How Consumers in-fact see themselves. 2. Ideal Self Image-How Consumers would like to see themselves 3. Social Self Image or Reflected Self-image or Looking Glass Self Image-How consumers feel others see them. In much case, peoples actions are determined by a somewhat definite imagination of how they appear to other people: the peoples image of themselves is determined by their ideas about what other people think of them. For example, if a person cannot spell correctly, he might refuse to write and seriously hurt his chances to succeed; or he might study spelling a great deal and improve his chances for a success. If he has bad breath, he might refuse to talk or breathe around other people or he might use mouthwash, stop smoking, or not eat certain foods. Until he either imagines that someone objects to these flaws (or until someone tells him) he is likely to continue to act in what he feels to be an acceptable manner. The â€Å"Looking Glass Self† normally helps the individual to become more successful, better liked person. If, however, constant fear about other peoples opinions prevents him from achieving self-confidence, he may choose to become a social outcast. The Logic behind the name â€Å"looking glass self image†: As we see our face, figure, and dress in a mirror and are interested in them because they are ours, and pleased or otherwise with them depending on whether they are what we want them to be: so in imagination we see in someone elses mind some thought of our appearance, manners, aims, deeds, character, friends, and so on, and are affected by it. ) 4. Ideal Social Self Image-How consumers would like others to see them. It also seems useful to think in terms of two other types of self image. i. e. Page 3 Prof. Suvendu Kr. Pratihari www. imis. ac. in 5. Expected Self- how consumers expect to see themselves at some specified future time. It happens somewhere in between actual and ideal self image. It is a future oriented combination of actual and ideal self image. 6. Ought-to self- It consists of traits or characteristics that an individual believes it is his or her duty or obligation to possess. E. g. striving to achieve a deeper religious understanding or the seeking of a fair or just solution to a challenging ethical problem. Page 4 Prof. Suvendu Kr. Pratihari

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Domestic Violence And Substance Abuse Essay - 1511 Words

Domestic Violence and Substance Abuse I decided to pick this topic because I was a victim of domestic violence, likely due to substance abuse at one point in time. Every single day was miserable and I had nowhere to go. I didn’t even know that he was using drugs. He was a few years older than me and I was naà ¯ve about what was happening. After several months, I was finally able to have my mom help me move back to Arizona. I have moved on from that chapter in my life, but I have always been curious about the relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse. Therefore, I want to find out if different drugs produce different outcomes, statistically speaking. I know that different drugs have different effects on the individual’s mental health, so I wanted to expand on that and find out the influence of different drugs on domestic violence. Honestly, I learned a lot by doing research on domestic violence and substance abuse. It has been proven by research that domestic violence perpetration is linked to drug and alcohol abuse. Men and women can either be victims or perpetrators, which contradicts the common belief that only women are victims and men are perpetrators of domestic violence. A few of the substances that I researched in relation to domestic violence are methamphetamine, cocaine, and alcohol. Of course, all of these substances can impair an individual’s mental status. Methamphetamine can cause an individual to become violent, experience mood disturbances orShow MoreRelatedSubstance Abuse And Domestic Violence Essay1670 Words   |  7 PagesIn this paper I will be addressing the correlation that is between substance abuse and domestic violence. There are many factors that play a role in why domestic violence occurs in a home; this paper will be focusing on the factor of drug abuse in particularly. Early on in the course we learned that domestic violence does not only pertain to intimate partner violence but also to child abuse, elder abuse, and any other abuse of a person that occurs with inside the home. I will be providing researchRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Domestic Violence3742 Words   |  15 Pagesseek domestic violence services, and even more who do not seek services, are dealing with substance abuse issues as well as abuse. The reasons that domestic viol ence victims begin their substance abuse vary, but can include: use as a coping mechanism in order to survive the abusive situation, a way to deal with abuse of the past, coercion and by an abusive partner, chemical dependency, cultural oppression or a new sense of freedom (Bland Edmund, 2005). Whatever the reason for substance abuseRead More Case Study: Impact on Children of Substance Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Mental Illness2706 Words   |  11 PagesStudies have shown that children who grow up in families where there is substance misuse, mental illness or domestic violence are more vulnerable to significant harm (Kendall-Taylor and Mikulak 2009).Children’s vulnerability usually stems from the effects of substance misuse, domestic violence or mental illness on parenting ability. Substance misuse, domestic violence and mental illness can result in parent’s finding it difficult to organize their lives to meet both their personal needs and theirRead MoreWomen And Domestic Violence : India Essay1480 Words   |  6 PagesWomen and Domestic Violence India Chillious Cleveland State University This paper was prepared or Social Work 622, Section 480, taught by Professor Seck Violence has been an ongoing issue, and has increased over the years. There are many different types of violence that can take place, one being domestic violence. Domestic violence is defined as a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over anotherRead MoreThe Violence And Its Effects On The Lives Of Contemporary Native Generations Essay1400 Words   |  6 Pagesrelationship between mother and daughter, intergenerational transmission of trauma via substance abuse, domestic violence, and identity implications can potentially result in suicide. First off, substance abuse can facilitate the transmission of trauma from mother to daughter. Whether the mother drinks throughout her pregnancy, drinks in the presence of her daughter, or neglects her child due to a substance problem, the mother partakes in the passing down of trauma in a damaging way. In â€Å"IntergenerationalRead MoreForensic Psychology And Crime And Substance Abuse847 Words   |  4 Pages Forensic Psychology Forensic psychology is a solid reference to crime and substance abuse. Criminal behavior is an evil thought however substance abuse is a disease. One will certainly need a better understanding to an individual’s crime that would cause one to commit them. Did the drugs make him/her do it? Psychology, biology, and criminology fall within the evolution in forensic psychology. Race, sex, and poverty plays a pivotal role when a crime is committed within a specificRead MoreBandura s Social Learning Theory And Attachment Theory1260 Words   |  6 Pageshas similarities and distinctions regarding the mechanisms that underlie the impact of child abuse. This essay will examine these competing theories to determine which mechanisms are most strongly supported for families at high risk for child abuse and/or neglect (Begle, Dumas Hanson, 2010). Social Learning Theory Social learning theory suggests that the mechanism underlying the continuity of violence is observational learning in which children who were abused learn to repeat abusive or neglectfulRead MoreEssay about The Effects of Domestic Violence on Children1448 Words   |  6 PagesHow does domestic violence between parents and parental figures affect the children who witness it? This is a question often asked by Sociologists and Psychologists alike. There have been studies that prove that children who witness domestic inter-parental violence experience mental health problems, issues with gender roles, substance abuse, the committing of crimes and suicide/suicide attempts later in their lives. This paper will explore all five of these effects of domestic violence on childrenRead MoreResearch Proposal- Alcohol Abuse Leads to Domestic Violence1471 Words   |  6 PagesDetermining whether Alcohol abuse leads to Domestic Violence Abstract This study seeks to analyze and examine the effects that alcohol abuse may have on domestic violence cases. The main goal of this study is to determine whether or not alcohol or alcohol abuse really has an affect on people and if it causes domestic violence or not. This study will be helpful in many ways and instances and it will help those who are still wondering whether or not these to completely different socialRead MoreThe Characteristics Of Abusers Of Domestic Violence904 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen resolved. Some of the abuse results from being abused or it comes from social problems. Regardless of the situation abuse is never okay and should be handled accordingly. This essay will cover the characteristics of abusers of domestic violence and what roles substance abuse plays in domestic violence. One characteristic of an abuser is destroying an individual’s property and the things they care about. When an abuser feels like an individual is going to leave the abuse, the ab user will sometimes

Foundations of Corporate Governance †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Foundations of Corporate Governance. Answer: Introduction: There are number of firms which contribute in the economic development and also in the development of society, but still there is mistrust in the society related to business organizations. As stated by Primeaux and Stieber there is popular misconception that business only seeks self-governing objectives and does not care about the society which means they just want to maximize their profit even at the cost of consumer, community, and the environment. Therefore, profit making is considered as most important factor of any business organization[1]. On the other hand, there are number of researchers who argue that business organizations must run their business ethically. As per these arguments, business organizations are responsible towards the society as they are earning from the society. Ethical decision making and leadership is considered as basis of ethical organizations, and various other factors are also there which are included in this list such as corporate social responsibility, sustainability, triple bottom line, and other similar factors[2]. This paper states the arguments related to business ethics and profitability, their importance, and also the balance between the two. Lastly, paper is concluded with brief conclusion which contains the summary of the facts and also state which factor overrides the other factor. Literature Review on Business Ethics: Business ethics is usually divided into forms that are normative ethics which mainly depends on the moral philosophy and theology, and this theory guides the individuals how they should behave. Other form of descriptive ethics which mainly directs the management of the business and it mainly deals with the actual behavior of the individual (Donaldson and Dunfee, 1994[3]; Trevino and Weaver, 1994[4]). However, both the theories related to ethics are equally important, and both play important role in descriptive ethical decision making in the business. There are number of theoretical models which recognize the descriptive ethics that are mid 1980s and early 1990s (Jones, 1991)[5]. These models generally built on Rest (1986) originals framework which mainly emphasis on moral decision making and states that moral decision making include four components that are moral nature of an issue, making a moral judgment, establishing moral intent, and engaging in moral action[6]. Now day firms play very important roles in our lives, and sometime we completely fail to realize the importance of their presence and function of providing goods and services which makes our lives so much easier. This can be understood through example which states that people of generation 1960 grows with the rise of computing such as IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Apple, Oracle, Sun, Cysco, and many others. Thanks to the power of computers and speed in processing the information because of which numbers of processes have been identified in almost all the fields related to human activity such as education, medicine, manufacturing, transportation, etc. it usually covers almost all the basic and other needs of human beings. Introduction of computers were considered as revolution related to information, and its comparison with the social impact is considered by Gutenberg printing press in the 15th century. Now no one can imagine the world without internet and companies such as Google, Facebook, twitter, etc. contribution of this information revolution is goes beyond the fulfillment of basic general needs of human beings. It must be noted that this revolution extend to those remote areas also where still human rights are under threat. Therefore, in case of free economies, firms perform their social roles by manufacturing the goods and providing the services which are demanded by the people or might be demanded in future. Therefore, in competitive markets maximization of profit creates job in the process of production, and introduce those goods in markets which are wanted by consumers at the smallest possible cost quoted by the technical constraints. This activity helps in generate the surplus related to consumers, which is defined as the difference between the willingness of consumers to pay for the goods and what is actually paid by the consumers to get the goods. In this context this activity is considered as ethical because in this situation god for the company is also good for everyone. This argument is stated by Primeaux and Stieber (1994: 289), and they stated when any business maximize its profit which means allocate resources in efficient manner, now people have more things to fulfill their demand and it is considered as ethical business with profit maximization. If these activities does not maximize the profit which means does not allocate the resources in efficient manner and demands of the people are not met then it is considered as bad. Adam Smith outlined the good ethical outcome many years ago. He is the father of modern economics and with the help of invisible hand metaphor he developed this good ethical outcome in case of those firms which are driven by self-interest only. These firms are defined as level one by Wagner-Tsukamoto (2007) in context of moral agency firm[7]. As per referred by Goodpaster and Mathews (1982), competition in market for the purpose of delivering an ethical quality independent and any moral projections of the managers as the systemic morality related to market economy. Therefore, in context of ethic manager of hypothetical neoclassical firm can go beyond the immoral decision making[8]. As stated by Athannassoulis (2004)[9], if any function is involved then good thing is considered when all the functions are performed well. This can be understood through example which states that knife has function to cut and it performs its functions in well manner when it cuts well. Therefore, if any manager wants to maximize the profit must first minimize the cost, and the goal of manager is to efficient use of scarce resources is high on the agenda of neoclassical firm. Real world are completely different from the perfect competition in many situations, and there are number of neoclassical economist who are agree that state must consider a nd take actions to correct the market failure or unacceptable wealth inequality[10]. Benefit to Society from adopting the approach related to Business Ethics: Generally, people think that business is established for making profits, and business organizations make profit at every cost. In other words, business organizations are not ethical and business is the pool of greed. From last few years, this conception has been changed. Fact that business organizations earns profit through unethical way is proved false because there are number of companies which are good and contribute in the development of society which means there are number of peoples who are doing right thing. Now business organizations try to solve the major issues face by society at global level, and there are number of peoples who believe this fact. After observing things from last three decades, it can be said that number of things are changed[11]. Thousands of business organization are working for making the world better place, and add value to the daily lives of the people. Therefore it is necessary to change the view we think about the business especially during the period of global financially crises in which old concept of profit maximization. As per the stakeholders theory, stakeholders are the owners of the business and business organizations bear primary responsibility towards them. In other words, business organization must earn profit for their stakeholders such as suppliers, investors, employees, customers, and the community. The old concept related to business stated that main aim of business is to earn profits. This concept is based on the approach that breathing is the main purpose of life and in similar way most important aim of business is to earn profit. The only difference is that business is conducted by passionate entrepreneur for the purpose of fulfilling their dreams to change the world. This can be understood through example, John Mackey, co-CEO of Whole Foods Market is the great and successful business leaders who practice conscious capitalism[12]. As per john, those business men who want to make money start business out of passion. He further stated, Physicians make money but there main aim is to heal, teachers make profit but also educates the society. There is one more example; CEO Tom Gardner of Motley Fools main mission is to help people for becoming better investors. CEO of The Container Store that is Kip Tindell explains that he believes in taking good care of 6000 employees will result in taking good care of consumers by employees, and this result in profit[13]. After considering the above facts, it become clear that if organization management work ethically and good then organization definitely earns profit, and if organization management does not work ethically and good then organization does not earns profit for long term. Usually, profit is described as earning more money than it spends. Distribution of profit is decided by the owners themselves and it also play key role in motivating the employees to earn ethically[14]. There are number of companies who earn profit through ethical ways but there are some companies also who earn profit by choosing unethical way. Many companies are there which toe the line between the ethical perspective of the business and profitable perspective of the business, and sometimes this line is crossed while making profits for the organization. Those companies which cross this line for making the profits face various legal issues and issues related to their reputation by proving costly and damaging their brand. A recent example related to this is Recreational Data Services (RDS), this company is the small Alaskan software company won a $51.3 million settlement over GPS giant, Trimble Navigation. In this, Trimble was forced to pay the RDS for loss of earnings after being found guilty of stealing the confidential information of RDs and also create carbon copy of the same project. This example make it clear that main aim of CEO is to maximize the profit of the business for sa tisfying the demands of Pushy shareholders who wants higher returns on their investment. However, it is also the obligation of CEO to maximize the profit by choosing ethical way[15]. Justice and Normative morality in business ethics: There are number of business insolvencies which are occurred without any signal, and these business collapses affected all the related parties such as shareholders and stakeholders. This is the only reason because of which all related parties must force on good corporate governance which must be complied by the company. Theory of justice was developed by the John Rawls in his book, and this theory is against the idea generated by Utilitarianism theory. Utilitarianism theory sated that outcome is considered ethical if it provide benefit to the maximum number of people, but on other side some people also get negative effect from this theory. However, it is possible that some people or minority group would get bad outcome from the decision, therefore there is need to establish the rule which solve this unfair result. From the justice theory of Rawls a fair social contract can be introduced from the original position and as per this position all the members are put in the state of ignora nce and no one has knowledge related to their position in the society. Each member has no awareness related to their social advantage and disadvantage, which means person does not have any knowledge, related to their own future what they become in society in future. This situation is possible with any individual either belongs to highest class or lower class in the society. Therefore, it is necessary that social contract must be designed in fair manner because everyone wants the contract to be fair for every position stated in Constitution. Therefore, rule must not be designed in favor of particular person, and the original position has two principles which result in justice of fairness. First principle is related to equality which states that everyone has same right, opportunity, and liberty. Second principle is related to inequality in context of social and economic reasons, and the unbalances have been managed by allowing the greatest advantage to the less disadvantaged group. After considering these above stated principles rule of justice and fairne ss is stated in the context of corporate governance. A theory of justice in part of the original position can be applied to use in the moral reasoning by considering the original position stated above without any bias[16]. Normative theory consists three theories that are stockholder theory, stakeholder theory, Social contract theory. On current basis, stockholder theory is not accepted by ethics community, but shareholder theory is adopted by various communities of business. This context is not right as stakeholder theory is not an outward theory[17]. Other Theories: Agency theory is considered as the relationship between the principles of the corporate which includes shareholders with the agents such as executives and managers. As per this theory, shareholders appoint agents for the purpose of performing their work. Clarke (2004[18]) stated that principles delegate their work for running the business to the directors or mangers that are considered as shareholders agents. As per the argument stated by Daily et al (2003) two factors influence the existence of this theory. First factor states that theory is conceptually simple which just consider the corporation of shareholders and managers[19]. Second factor states that both employees and managers in the organizations are self- interested, and this theory expects that agents must take decision in the best interest of their principles. This problem was first highlighted by Adam Smith in the 18th Century and after that investigated by Ross (1973). However this theory is fades away with the changing context of Corporation[20]. Other theory in this context is political theory, and this theory brings the approach of developing the voting support from the shareholders instead of purchasing the votes. Therefore, political influence play very important role in corporate governance and it direct the corporate governance in organization[21]. Interest of general public is much reserved as government participates in decision making of corporate. Various cultural challenges are taking into consideration and political model also highlights the allocation related to power of corporate, profits, and other privileges are determined in developments of government. From last few years, government of country has been seen to have strong influence in context of politics on the firms. Therefore, it is clear from the above facts that politics entered into the government structures and other corporate governance[22]. Conclusion: After considering the above facts, it is clear that both ethics and profit play important role in the business administration, and while maximizing their profits business must consider the ethics. Usually, business is established for making profits, and business organizations make profit at every cost. In other words, business organizations are not ethical and business is the pool of greed. From last few years, this conception has been changed. Fact that business organizations earns profit through unethical way is proved false because there are number of companies which are good and contribute in the development of society which means there are number of peoples who are doing right thing. Therefore, after considering the above facts both ethics and profits are necessary to sustain the business. References Edward Freeman, (2014). Darden Ideas to Action, https://ideas.darden.virginia.edu/2014/08/is-profit-the-purpose-of-business/, Accessed on 18th October 2017. HBR, (1980). Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage, https://hbr.org/1980/07/strategic-management-for-competitive-advantage, Accessed on 18th October 2017. Law Teacher, Company Ethics And Profit, https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/business-law/company-ethics-and-profit.php, Accessed on 18th October 2017. Linked in. Ethical Business vs Maximizing Profits, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20141006191205-68335342-ethical-business-vs-maximizing-profits, Accessed on 18th October 2017. Law Teacher. A Theory Of Justice, https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/business-law/a-theory-of-justice-business-law-essay.php, Accessed on 18th October 2017. John, H. The Normative Theories of Business Ethics: A Guide for the Perplexed, https://www.jstor.org/stable/3857520?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents, Accessed on 18th October 2017. Athanassoulis, N., 2004. Virtue Ethics,https://www.iep.utm.edu/v/virtue.htm, Accessed on 18th October 2017. Bnabou, Roland and Jean Tirole, 2010, Individual and corporate social responsibility, Economica, 77, 305, pp. 1-19. Primeaux, Patrick and John Stieber, 1994, Profit maximization: The ethical mandate of business, Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 4, pp. 287-294. Camenisch, Paul F., 1987, Profit: Some moral reflections, Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 3, pp. 225-231. Donaldson, T., Dunfee, T.W. 1994Toward a Unified Conception of Business Ethics. Integrative Social Contracts TheoryAcademy of Management Review19252284. Trevio, L.K., Weaver, G.R. 1994Business Ethics/Business Ethics. One Field or Two?Business Ethics Quarterly4113128. Jones, Donald G. and Helen Troy: 1982, A Bibliography of Business Ethics: 19761980 (Colgate Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Virginia). Rest, James R.: 1979, Development in Judging Moral Issues (University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN). Wagner-Tsukamoto, Sigmund, 2007, Moral Agency, Profits and the firm: Economic revisions to the Friedman theorem, Journal of Business Ethics, 70, 2, pp. 209-220. Goodpaster, Kenneth E. and John B. Mathews, Jr., 1982, Can corporations have a conscience?, Harvard Business Review, January-February, pp. 1-9. Beger, Ida E., Cunningham, Peggy H and Minette E. Drumwright, 2007, Mainstream corporate social responsibility: Developing markets for virtue, California Management Review, 49, 4, pp. 132-146. Clark, T. (2004) Theories of Corporate Governance: The Philosophical Foundations of Corporate Governance London and New York: Routledge. Daily, C.M., Dalton, D.R. and Canella, A.A. (2003) Corporate Governance: Decades of Dialogue and Data. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 371-382. Ross, S.A. (1973) The Economic Theory of Agency: The Principals Problem. The American Economic Review, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 134-139. Pound, J. (1993) Proxy Contest And The Efficiency Of Shareholder Oversight. Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 20, pp. 237-265. Hawley, J.P. and Williams, A.T. (1996) Corporate Governance in the United States: The Rise Of Fiduciary Capitalism. Working Paper, Saint Mary's College of California, School of Economics and Business Administration.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Music In Lee free essay sample

For anyone who’s into underground rap, here are some artists to check out from Lee, as well as Pittsfield. You might be surprised by these local rappers. In Lee we have some underground rappers; I’m one of them. I rap in a group Deadly Minds of Lee with Jimmy Palmer, Cody Giles, and Josh Thorpe. Besides our group, there is Andrew Farrell (HandGun), and what is cool about this is that the music doesn’t just stop at Lee, It stretches out in Lenox with rappers such as G-Biz, and the Dead Poets Society! Besides Lenox you also have rappers in Pittsfield, such as X-Cell, Logic, Redeye, and probably a lot more than that. But in Lee we also have Shawn Baird who raps, as well as his friend Richie. They had both been in a group together called The Grave Walkas , who had recently had broken up! Another underground rap group contained in Lee , as well as Chatam, New York are the Kadaverz. We will write a custom essay sample on Music In Lee or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The members of this group go under the names Spaz, Reaper, and Durge. Kadaverz in a way are horrorcore, they are also funny, and are a definite group to check out as well as other artists I have posted. Since music is popping up in Lee, as well as other places, the underground to me is expanding, which is great. Underground music is different than mainstream because of how everyone starts off and how they get their names out. It’s not some American idol show where you just sing in front of people and instantly get famous without working for it. A name in music is just hard to achieve, and that’s all- I’m going to wrap this article up for now.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Free Essays on Sir WIntston Churchill

SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL, (1874-1965), British leader. English on his father's side, American on his mother's, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill embodied and expressed the double vitality and the national qualities of both peoples. His names testify to the richness of his historic inheritance: Winston, after the Royalist family with whom the Churchills married before the English Civil War; Leonard, after his remarkable grandfather, Leonard Jerome of New York; Spencer, the married name of a daughter of the 1st duke of Marlborough, from whom the family descended; Churchill, the family name of the 1st duke, which his descendents resumed after the Battle of Waterloo. All these strands come together in a career that had no parallel in British history for richness, range, length, and achievement. Churchill took a leading part in laying the foundations of the welfare state in Britain, in preparing the Royal Navy for World War I, and in settling the political boundaries in the Middle East after the war. In WORLD WAR II emerged as the leader of the united British nation and Commonwealth to resist the German domination of Europe, as an inspirer of the resistance among free peoples, and as a prime architect of victory. In this, and in the struggle against communism afterward, he made himself an indispensable link between the British and American peoples, for he foresaw that the best defense for the free world was the coming together of the English-speaking peoples. Profoundly historically minded, he also had prophetic foresight: British-American unity was the message of his last great book, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. His dominant qualities were courage and imagination. Less obvious to the public, but no less important, was his powerful, original, and fertile intellect. He had intense loyalty, marked magnanimity and generosity, and an affectionate nature with a puckish humor. Oratory, in which he ultimately... Free Essays on Sir WIntston Churchill Free Essays on Sir WIntston Churchill SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL, (1874-1965), British leader. English on his father's side, American on his mother's, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill embodied and expressed the double vitality and the national qualities of both peoples. His names testify to the richness of his historic inheritance: Winston, after the Royalist family with whom the Churchills married before the English Civil War; Leonard, after his remarkable grandfather, Leonard Jerome of New York; Spencer, the married name of a daughter of the 1st duke of Marlborough, from whom the family descended; Churchill, the family name of the 1st duke, which his descendents resumed after the Battle of Waterloo. All these strands come together in a career that had no parallel in British history for richness, range, length, and achievement. Churchill took a leading part in laying the foundations of the welfare state in Britain, in preparing the Royal Navy for World War I, and in settling the political boundaries in the Middle East after the war. In WORLD WAR II emerged as the leader of the united British nation and Commonwealth to resist the German domination of Europe, as an inspirer of the resistance among free peoples, and as a prime architect of victory. In this, and in the struggle against communism afterward, he made himself an indispensable link between the British and American peoples, for he foresaw that the best defense for the free world was the coming together of the English-speaking peoples. Profoundly historically minded, he also had prophetic foresight: British-American unity was the message of his last great book, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. His dominant qualities were courage and imagination. Less obvious to the public, but no less important, was his powerful, original, and fertile intellect. He had intense loyalty, marked magnanimity and generosity, and an affectionate nature with a puckish humor. Oratory, in which he ultimately...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Criminal case of Florida vs Jamarco Stafford Term Paper

Criminal case of Florida vs Jamarco Stafford - Term Paper Example The case of Jamarco Stafford and James Adams reflect a phase in the lives of human beings where crime seems to have taken a major role in changing an entire scenario of a family from happiness to a shattered stage of living. The families of Jamarco Stafford and James Adams could be realized to be in such a stage after they lost their children and faced their other children spending days and nights in jail. Murder being a heinous and harsh crime has been found to encounter several laws and charges. Yet, the society seems to be unable to control human beings from taking up such dreadful measures. Particularly, in the modern times, the younger generation seems to be more violent in nature and getting involved in incidents of murders (Holinger, 1994, p.21) as in the case of Jamarco Stafford and James Adams also get presented. The story of Jamarco Stafford and James Adams presents a case where these two friends who were extremely close friends, growing up together, attending places and events together, eventually betrayed each other when both killed each other’s brothers. Adams had killed the brother of Stafford on demand of a gun. The resistances on the earlier murder created confrontations that led to a second murder of Lavoris Adams who was the brother of James, by Stafford. The incident shattered the lives of these two families and the two young kids had to spend their lives in jail. The incidents were shocking and unexpected since these two kids had grown up together and were the closest of friends (Lebovich, n.d.).... The incidents were shocking and unexpected since these two kids had grown up together and were the closest of friends (Lebovich, n.d.). In the recent years murders or killing by adolescents have rapidly increased in rate. This has eventually created difficulties for â€Å"law enforcement personnel†, as well as other people who are involved in the social or health welfare of common people, the educators, members of families and the peer groups (Heckel & Shumaker, 2001, p.xix). Particularly in cases of adolescent killings it becomes highly difficult to judge the causes behind the act. The young generations are unable to explain their thoughts, their reasons, and are confusing and unaware of the consequences of such actions. Many times they attempt such acts from utter immaturity and impatience (Heckel & Shumaker, 2001, p.xix). Criminal laws are also applicable on the adolescents who execute such heinous crimes. In fact, the number of prisoners from adolescents seems to be rising more than adult prisoners. Juvenile murderers are also treated like adults since laws have now initiated measures not to be partial in such cases, instead criminals should tried as made by the law. The adolescents who have been found to be involved in murders reflect that the number of males in the records is much higher than there are females in the same record (Worell, 2001, p.617). Criminal law and its theories are highly significant in the context of adolescent killing. It has been observed that a criminal law theory may be different from other laws thus making the criminal law theory a unique theory in its context (Moore, 2010, p.8). In most cases the causes of a crime would not be able to be explained by common people. However, several researchers have